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| | |-+  What our textiles are made of.
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Author Topic: What our textiles are made of.  (Read 1193 times)
PaganRaven
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« on: Tue 12 August, 2008 - 11:06 am »

I noticed that lately in the warehouse their clothing doesn't have labels showing what the garmet is made from. and it can be hard to tell just by looking and feeling. Personally I prefer natural fibres, especially as I'm sick of static 


Animal Textiles

pretty self-explanatory - hair or fur from various animals (wool is a type of hair)

Plant Textiles

Cotton, flax, jute, hemp and modal are all used in clothing. Piņa (pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fabrics such as cotton.

Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and taffetas.

Seaweed is used in the production of textiles. A water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area

Tencel is a man-made fabric derived from wood pulp. It is often described as a man-made silk equivalent and is a tough fabric which is often blended with other fabrics - cotton for example.

Mineral Textiles

not really seen in clothing fabric, but can be found in other sources around the home - curtains, panelling, mattresses etc

Synthetic Textiles

All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.

Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. (What is polyester? Polyester is a synthetic polymer made of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) or its dimethyl ester dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and monoethylene glycol (MEG). It ranges after polyethylene and polypropylene at the third place in terms of market size.)

Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armor.

Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. (Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. Acrylic has recently been used in clothing as a cheaper alternative to cashmere, due to the similar feeling of the materials. The disadvantages of acrylic is that it tends to fuzz (or pill) easily and that it does not insulate the wearer as well as cashmere. Many products like fake pashmina or cashmina use this material to create the illusion of cashmere to the consumer.)

Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing.

Spandex (trade name Lycra) is a polyurethane fibre that stretches easily and can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, bras, and swimsuits.

Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. (A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units)

Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. ( The process to create Ingeo makes use of the carbon naturally stored in plants by photosynthesis. Plant starches are broken down into sugars. The carbon and other elements in these natural sugars are then used to make a biopolymer through a process of simple fermentation and separation. The resulting resin, called NatureWorks PLA, can then be spun or extruded into Ingeo for use in textiles.)

Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment.

Other

Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring polymers and therefore it is not a truly synthetic fiber, nor is it a natural fiber. It is known by the names viscose rayon and art silk in the textile industry. It usually has a high lustre quality giving it a bright shine. Rayon is a very versatile fiber and has the same comfort properties as natural fibers. It can imitate the feel and texture of silk, wool, cotton and linen. The fibers are easily dyed in a wide range of colors. Rayon fabrics are soft, smooth, cool, comfortable, and highly absorbent, but they do not insulate body heat, making them ideal for use in hot and humid climates.

The process is as follows:

Cellulose: Production begins with processed cellulose (usually from wood pulp)
Immersion: The cellulose is dissolved in caustic soda
Pressing: The solution is then pressed between rollers to remove excess liquid
White Crumb: The pressed sheets are crumbled or shredded to produce what is known as "white crumb"
Aging: The "white crumb" aged through exposure to oxygen
Xanthation: The aged "white crumb" is mixed with carbon disulfide in a process known as Xanthation, the aged alkali cellulose crumbs are placed in vats and are allowed to react with carbon disulphide under controlled temperature (20 to 30°C) to form cellulose xanthate. (C6H9O4ONa)n + nCS2 ----> (C6H9O4O-SC-SNa)n
Yellow Crumb: Xanthation changes the chemical makeup of the cellulose mixture and the resulting product is now called "yellow crumb"
Viscose: The "yellow crumb" is dissolved in a caustic solution to form viscose
Ripening: The viscose is set to stand for a period of time, allowing it to ripen
Filtering: After ripening, the viscose is filtered to remove any undissolved particles
Degassing: Any bubbles of air are pressed from the viscose in a degassing process
Extruding: The viscose solution is extruded through a spinneret, which resembles a shower head with many small holes
Acid Bath: As the viscose exits the spinneret, it lands in a bath of sulfuric acid resulting in the formation of rayon filaments
Drawing: The rayon filaments are stretched, known as drawing, to straighten out the fibers
Washing: The fibers are then washed to remove any residual chemicals
Cutting: If filament fibers are desired the process ends here. The filaments are cut down when producing staple fibers
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I can hear the raven sing .... a spiritual glow envelops, medicine power develops ... as the raven sings.
spanky
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« Reply #1 on: Tue 12 August, 2008 - 11:57 am »

THATS IT!!!!!
i BEING NAKED FROM NOW ON... I NOT PUTTING ALL THOSE CHEMICLES ON MY BODY... soo cited soo cited soo cited soo cited
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PaganRaven
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« Reply #2 on: Tue 12 August, 2008 - 12:05 pm »

 Brought to you by dab

I feel the same way some days. I  when my cotton socks wear out 
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PaganRaven
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« Reply #3 on: Tue 12 August, 2008 - 12:06 pm »

AND the poor old wool industry hasn't been getting decent prices for a while... imagine if the demand went back up 
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I can hear the raven sing .... a spiritual glow envelops, medicine power develops ... as the raven sings.
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